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Today’s NABTEB answers postedgo down for religion


Justice has to do with moral rightness based on ethics, religion, rationality, law, fairness and equity. It illustrates applications of the notion of proper balance: a fair trial, which among other things depicts neutrality and fairness between the ability of the defendant and prosecution to establish innocence and guilt respectively.

(i)It defends people from racism
(ii)It protects people with disabilities
(iii)It ensures everyone gets adequate healthcare
(iv)It protects people from ageism
(v)It protects people from religion-based discrimination

(i)It defends people from racism; Discrimination based on race is another huge issue in most societies. It can make it hard for people to find work, live in peace, marry who they want, and more. A major trait of social justice is that people of every race can live well and have equal opportunities.

(ii)It protects people with disabilities; Disability rights have been ignored and neglected for many years, but with social justice on the rise, people are finally getting a voice. Those with both visible and invisible disabilities (like mental illness) are often discriminated against in their workplace, in healthcare, and more. For social justice to truly be justice for all, disability rights need to be included.

(iii)It ensures everyone gets adequate healthcare; The importance of good health can’t be overstated. It’s a matter of life and death. A society’s healthcare system determines who gets what services, and how much they have to sacrifice to get the care they need. When people strive for social justice in healthcare, they are working for better and more affordable insurance plans, access to medication, and more.

(iv)It protects people from ageism; As people get older, they are often discriminated against simply because of their age. They might get fired from their job in favor of someone younger, or get treated with disrespect in their daily lives. Ageism, as a form of discrimination, falls under the scope of social justice.

(v)It protects people from religion-based discrimination; A person’s religion is a central part of them, and freedom from religious discrimination falls right into the lap of social justice. Many countries have laws that discourage religious freedom, while others fail to enforce protections. Social justice advocates want all religions to be free and safe, including a person’s right to not follow any religion.

(i) A constitution refers to the basic principles and laws of a nation or state that determine the powers and duties of the government and also provides the platform or base for determining the fundamental rights and duties of the people. It is also a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organisation is acknowledged to be governed.

(iii) Political parties are an organised group of people with at least roughly similar political aims and opinions, that seeks to influence public policy by getting its candidates elected to public office. They can link the governmental institutions to the elements of the civil society in a free and fair society and are regarded as necessary for the functioning any modern democratic political system.

(iv) Civil societies refers to any non-governmental entities formed by a group of people with similar interests who come together to work on a common cause. It is a society in which each individual is allowed to pursue their own separate interest, as long as it does not harm anyone else.

(v) Armed forces are military forces authorized to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens. They are typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform

(vi) Free press is a situation whereby the press has the opportunity to freely express its opinion and national views on national issues. Such freedom implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state, its preservation may be sought through constitution or other legal protection and security.

A cultist is a person who practice excessive devotion to a figure, object, or belief system, typically following a charismatic leader

(i)Revenge; Revenge against others is another major reason why students join cults. In a bid to get back at those who had wronged or injured them, they join cults and hide behind its shadows to perpetuate their dastardly acts.

(ii)Popularity: People love the feeling of been feared, they love the feeling of being popular negatively, and to achieve this, they simply join up because they want to be popular and dreaded by other students on campus. The result as we all know is that they end up living in a perpetual state of fear and hiding from rival cult members

(iii)Quest for Power: Many students want to feel superior and more powerful than other students, so they join cult groups to give themselves this false feeling of superiority.

(iv)Search for Protection: They join cult groups in the quest to be protected from being intimidated by others, especially cult members. After joining these cults they soon discover that they are not being protected at all but instead their lives have been kept on the line.

(v)Ignorance: lot of students have joined secret cults in pure ignorance. They were lured to the meeting by an old member under the guise of escorting them to “somewhere”. And once initiated, denouncing your membership is never an easy option.

(vi)Peer Group Influence: Many students join cult groups following persuasion from their friends who are already members. This is why it is very important to keep the right company of friends at all times.

Youth empowerment is a development programme aimed at creating opportunities that will encourage and develop the youths to be morally responsible, self-reliant and financially product citizens. It is also known as the process of giving young people opportunity to develop the ability they need to become peo who can influence their communities.

(i) Good Education Standard; Youth empowerment will help youth understand the importance of soft skills training and education that will definitely lead towards making a better Standard education system.

(ii) Crime Reduction; Empowering the youth will help to understand the crimes on a deeper level and that will make sure that they stand against anti-social activities. Empowerment enables individuals with a mindset that helps them to differentiate between what’s wrong and what’s right and choosing a path of justice, truth, and peace.

(iii) Poverty Eradication; When youths are equipped with the essential skills, those skills will help them to lead a better life later. It’s like an investment in their present which will pay off in the future. Youth empowerment will help to increase the employability of youth which will add to the GDP of the nation and national economy.

(iv) Better Standing of living; Empowering the youths is important as they are the future of the country, it will be a stepping stone towards attaining a better tomorrow. Empowering them will help to learn and achieve which will add up for their future and help them to live a standard life..







Solomon loved the Lord and walked according to his father, David’s statutes, laws and ways. When he began to reign he went to sacrifice to the Lord in Gibeon. The Lord appeared to him in dream by night and said to him, ‘ask what I shat give you’. Solomon began by commending God for his great love for his father, David and for giving him a son to reign in his stead because he had walked before him in faithfulness and he remained faithful to God. He said, though, he, Solomon. was but a little child, he was in the midst of God’s chosen people, a great people that cannot be numbered. He therefore asked for an understanding mind and wisdom, to govern the people and discern between good and evil ir governance. God was pleased with his request and he told him that since he had not asked for long life, riches, or the life of his enemies, he would grant him his request (such that none before or after him could be like him). Furthermore, he would give him what he had not asked for – riches and honour. God concluded that should he remember in faith and obey all God’s commandments like his father, David, He would lengthen his days. Solomon woke up and realized that it was a dream. He returned to Jerusalem, stood before the Ark (of the covenant) and offered burnt offerings to the Lord and feasted his servants.

(i)Use Them To strengthen His faith.
(ii)Use Them To aquire more wisdom
Peter taught that persecution is a necessity to test the genuineness of our faith. Persecution is like fire to refine Christian faith, just as gold is refined. Peter advised that in the midst of such persecution, Christians should maintain a positive attitude by rejoicing. Peter also taught that the prophets of old who predicted the suffering of Jesus Christ also spoke of His glory that was to come after His suffering. Therefore, Christians facing persecution should comport themselves and set their hope on the grace that will be theirs at Christ second coming.

(i) Ethical
(ii) Doctrine
(iii) political
(iv) cultural
(v) institutional

(i)Discrimination in job and scholarship allocation;
(ii)Prohibition of open air rallies/crusades;
(iii)Injustice in law court.
(iv) Christians suffer open persecution thereby leading to destruction of loves and property
(v) Christian are not allow to worship in some locations due to in security and kidnapping.

James in his epistle admonished Christians to be impartial since they profess the faith of Jesus Christ. This is because Jesus Himself does not show partiality. James gave an illustration of a rich man nicely dressed and a poor man shabbily dressed both visiting a churches And it happens that much attention is given to the rich man. The well -dressed rich man is given a special place to sit. But the poorly dressed man is asked to stand at an ordinary place. According to James, in such a situation, discrimination has been made between the rich and the poor. And this makes people become judges with evil thoughts. James says that God has chosen those who are poor materially in this world to be spiritually rich in faith. James holds the view that the poor are the heirs of the kingdom which is promised to those who love God. James further reminded the believers about how the rich dishonour the poor. He said the rich consistently oppress the poor and drag them to court. The rich also blaspheme the honourable name of Jesus. James admonished believers to observe the royal law which is “love your neighbour as yourself”.

(i) Through Praying.
(ii) Through Evangelism
(iii) Showing Equal Hospitality
(iv) Equal treatment to one another
(v) Preaching against partiality often and often.

The apostles were re-arrested and imprisoned. Ever before this time, the Sadduces had been opposed to the teachings of Jesus Christ. They did not believe in resurrection after death which Jesus Christ preached. As his apostles continued after Jesus’ death, the Sadducees and others who opposed Jesus’ teaching and his wonders were not happy. In the night, an angel of the Lord opened the prison doors and set them free. The Sanhedrin were surprised when they learnt that they were no longer in the prison. Instead, they were found in the temple, teaching the people. Without any violence, they were brought back before the council for their trial. The high priest said: ” We strictly charged you not to teach in this name, yet here you have filled Jerusalem with your teaching and you intend to bring this man’s blood upon us”. The apostles replied; “We must obey God rather than men…” The apostles accused the Jews of killing Jesus whom God raised. When the Sanhedrin heard this, they were enraged and wanted to kill them. But Gamaliel, a pharisee and a popular teacher of the law intervened on behalf of the apostles. He cautioned the council members and prevailed on them not to kill the apostles, saying that if this plan is of men, it would fail; but if it is of God, they would not be able to overthrow the apostles. Gamaliel’s advice was taken. The apostles were released after some flogging and warning that they should stop preaching in the name of Jesus.

(i) In some parts of the country and even in some schools, Christians are not allowed to preach publicly.

(ii) Also, church buildings are not allowed in some parts of the country.

(iii) Christians suffer open persecution, thereby leading to wanton destruction of lives and property.

(iv) There is discrimination against Christians in employment opportunities and promotions in public service.

(v) Christians are discriminated against in marriages and funeral ceremonies.

(vi) Christians are denied the freedom of worship and religious holidays

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Modernity and Tradition;
This is perhaps the most conspicuous theme in the play. It initially seems like Soyinka is setting a clear dichotomy between these two things, tradition embodied by Baroka and modernity embodied by Lakunle. However, as the play progresses Soyinka defies the audience’s assumptions. Lakunle espouses a variety of backwards views and seems to abandon his progressive principles when it is convenient to do so. Similarly, Baroka says he does not hate progress but merely finds its sameness and stagnation boring. He is preparing to use a stamp machine to make the village make money as they do in Lagos. Soyinka thus suggests that progress is not bad, but that it must be done on African terms.

(i)Allegory: Allegory is a work that has primary and secondary meanings. The dark woman in the poem is a symbol of Africa as a continent. Africa is a beautiful and lovely continent. She is seen as the beloved of the world. Her natural resources attracted the Western world.

(ii)Metaphor: The dark woman is compared to life, new land, paradise, sun, star etc.

(iii)Simile: The beauty of the woman strikes the poet-speaker “like the flash of an eagle.”

(iv)Interior Monologue: The poet persona speaks his thought to an addressee.

(v)Apostrophe: The whole poem is one long apostrophe. The poet addresses an unseen woman and Africa in general.

(vi)Imagery: Basically, the poet uses visual pictures of nature.

(vii)Repetition: Words like “dark woman”, “naked woman” are repeated in the poem to drive home the dominant message.


Capitalism is an economic system where the means of production are owned by private individuals.


(i) Means of production is owned by private individuals
(ii) The income is determined by free market forces.
(iii) Prices are determined by demand and supply/ market
(iv) Free market competition encourages efficiency and innovation
(v) Limited taxes based on individual income

(i) Means of production is owned by government or cooperatives
(ii) Income in such types of economy are equally distributed among all based on needs
(iii) Prices are decided and set by the government
(iv) Government-owned businesses have less incentive for efficiency and innovation
(v) High taxes necessary to pay for public services

A political party is an organization or group of people bound together by the same political ideals. It’s usually a cooperation of like-minded people who work together to achieve their political goals. It may be to gain control over the government, compete in elections, promote their political ideas, etc. Members of the same party should share a common goal.

(i) It helps in the recruitment of leaders: The essential function of any party is to recruit men of integrity, letters, action, leadership to its fold as members and prepare them for election in future.
(ii) Political parties provide political stability: The political parties in more than one way unite, simplify and stabilized the political process of the country.
(iii) Political parties educate Public opinion. Parties in any system of government educate, formulate and organize public opinion. They also help in the growth of the level of political consciousness of common citizens, who otherwise have no time to peruse and study issues of the state.
(iv) Political Parties formulate public policies: Each political party fights the election to achieve its objectives incorporated in their political manifesto. These policies are made keeping in mind the interest of general public.
(v) It makes the working of parliamentary government possible: A parliament consists of the representatives of the people. The political parties organize these representatives on party lines. The electorate chooses their representatives on the basis of their party affiliation.

Rule of law is defined as the supremacy if law over everybody in a political system .Rule of law is seen as a provision made by the Constitution with emphasis on supremacy of the law , equality before the law and Presence or inclusion of the principal of individual rights

(i) it protects the citizenry firm arbitrary rules: Citizens Should have access to court to seek redress whenever their right are trampled
(ii) It checks despite tendencies of rulers: That is the law action of the rulers must confirm with the laws of the State
(iv) Fundamental human rights:
The rule of law guarantee the fundamentals human rights of citizens and they are clearly started and entrenched in the Constitution
(iv) Equality of all citizens:
The principle of the rule of law ensures equality of all citizens before the law that is the rich and the poor are treated equality
(v) Attainment of law of order:
The principle of the rule of law ensures the attainment of the law and order in a state.




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